英語醫學科研論文的格式和要求

論文類別:應用文論文 > 寫作指導
論文標簽:英語教育論文
論文作者: 未知
上傳時間:2006/11/15 10:50:00

關鍵詞:醫學科研

  4) 討論部分

  總的要求:The author should tell the reader what the results mean by placing them in the context of previous published studies of the problem,即:與先有研究相比,本研究有何意義。

  具體要求:

  A. 簡要說明研究背景(background)
  B. 簡要介紹總的發現(general findings);
  C. 介紹具體要點(introduction of points)
  D. 與現有發現(若有)進行比較(comparison in the context of other studies)
  E. 意義(suggested meaning)
  F. 结論(conclusion)
  G. 前瞻研究(future studies)

  結論往往是論文中最長也是最難寫的部分,主要原因是作者要對研究結果和發现進行分析、推斷、演繹和推理,要求作者具有很強邏辑思維能力和英語文字組織能力。此外,這部分時態比較復雜,要分清實驗過程和結果(過去時)與分析意見(確定:現在時;不確定或假設:過去時)的區別;他人研究結果(過去時或現在完成時)與本研究結果(過去時)的區別;普遍適用的結論(現在時)與只適用本研究的結論(過去時)的其別等。因此,對於however, may, might, could, would, possibly, probably, be likely to 等詞(組)的使用以及we believe (think / consider) that, to our knowledge, in our experience (practice) 等插入語的使用就顯得格外重要。

  示例:
  Parenteral nutrition is being used with increasing frequency as a primary source of caloric support in adult and pediatric patients with gastrointestinal problems. Numerous complications have been associated with the administration of TPN, including a significantly increased ncidence of gallbladder disease [3-5,7]. The data here suggest that cholecyste
ctomy is often required for the management of symptomatic gallbladder disease in this group of patients, and is associated with significant risks.[說明研究背景,包括意義] Of the 35 patients who required cholecystectomy for TPN-induced gallbladder disease, operative morbidity and mortality were 54 percent and 11 percent, respectively. Maingot [8] has stated that cholecystectomy “is one of the simplest and safest of the abdominal operations, and is ass
ociated with a low operative mortality rate (about 0.5 percent). A review of the pediatric literature suggests that when cholecystectomy is performed in children, the operative morbidity is less than 10 percent, and the mortality is less than 1 percent. [8,9] Glenn [11] has reported a mortality rate of less than 0.1 percent in over 5,000 patients under
the age of 50 years who underwent cholecystectomy. The morbidity and mortality observed in our group of receiving long-term TPN, therefore, were far in excess of what would be expected for a population of patients whose mean age was 29 years.

  [提出本研究主要發現並將其與其他研究發現相比较]

  Our data suggest that are specific factors unique to patients who require long-term TPN that contribute to the increased mortality and morbidity associated with cholecystectomy in this select group.[以下,作者用較大篇幅分析了這類病人死亡率和並發癥增高的臨床、實驗室和手術等方面的原因,原文從略]

  Based on the results of our studies, we believe that early cholecystectomy is indicated in patients with TPN-induced gallbladder disease. Obviously, all patients with symptomatic disease should undergo cholecystectomy unless there specific medical contraindications. These operations should be performed in a timely, elective fashion because delay may result in the need for urgent surgery and thereby, increase an already high risk. Although recent studies have suggested that cholecystectoy may not be warranted in otherwise healthy patients with asymptomatic gallbladder disease [20], we believe that this axiom does not apply to patie
nts with TPN-induced gallbladder disease. Out data suggest that the natural history of gallbladder disease in patients receiving TPN is considerably different from that of their counterparts not receiving TPN. Based on our findings, we recommend elective cholecystectomy in patients receiving TPN when gallstones first appear. Furthermore, cholecystectomy should be considered, especially in children without stones who are un
dergoing laparotomy for other reasons. [從對结果的分析及與其他研究的比較得出結論性意见,這是討論部分最重要的內容 ] Whether TPN-induced gallstones can be prevented through daily stimulated gallbladder emptying awaits the results of further studies. [前瞻研究]

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  5) 致謝部分

  總的要求:Always get approval of your intention to mention someone in the acknowledgement and approval of the form in which you will present the acknowledgement, 即:致謝詞和致謝方式必须征得受謝人或單位的同意。

  6)

參考文獻



  總的要求:Reference styles should be specific to each journal, 既:根據各雜誌的具體要求,因為各雜誌對參考文獻部分的編排順序和格式不盡統一。

  現將URMSBJ要求的20多種

參考文獻

中最常見的5種格式列举如下:

  1) Vega KJ, Pina I, Krevsky B. Heart transplantation is associated with an increased risk for pancreatobiliary disease. Ann Intern Med 1996 Jun 1; 124(11): 980-3. [標準雜誌文章]

  2) The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Clinical excise stress testing:Safety and performance guidelines. Med J Aust 1996; 164: 282-4. [作者是个組織]

  3) Cancer in South Africa [editorial]. S Afr Med J 1984; 84: 15. [無作者名]

  4) Shen HM, Zhang QF. Risk assessment of nickel cardiogenicity and occupational lung cancer. Environ Health Perspect 1994; 102 Suppl 1: 275-82. [某杂誌增刊]

  5) Browell DA, Lennard TW. Immunologic status of the cancer patient and the effects of blood transfusion on antitumor responses. Curr Opin Gen Surg 1993; 325-33 [無期無卷]

  7) 插圖說明

  總的要求:Type or point out legends for illustrations using double spacing, starting on a separate page, 既:插圖說明要另頁雙行打印。當插圖中有箭頭(arrow)、符號(symbol)、數字(number)或字母(letter)時,要在這部分(不是在插圖頁上)對其方向、位置等作出非常明確的說明。

  8)插圖
  總的要求:Design your figures for the appropriate reduction, 即:插圖要按雜誌的版面大小比例進行壓縮;不要把插圖拍成照片。

  9)表格

  總的要求:A table should be a totally self-contained unit of information, 即:表格要作為一個獨立的信息單位另頁打印。表格要簡明清楚,完整(標題、内容和腳註),即使只有一張表格也要標Table 1。
  
  10)照片和說明

  总的要求:與7)、8)部分相同。

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